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Optional protocolon the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
ViolenceThe Committee is concerned about the number of children who died or were seriously injured during political demonstrations in the State party in 2013 as well as that drowning is the major cause of death among children between the ages of 1 and 10. It is further concerned about the high incidence of accidents, including road accidents, and injury-related death of children in the State party and about the situation of children of parents employed in the garment industry, in particular at reports of children dying in the childcare facilities of garment factories during fire accidents.
Corporal punishmentCorporal Punishment is legal in the home, alternative care settings, day care, penal institutions and as a sentence for crime.
Overview of the child rights situation

The Bangladesh report sheds particular light on the many child deaths in the country and the poor health care. A positive aspect is the awareness of intersecting forms of discrimination. The recognition of Rohingya refugees helps many children, although improvements are still needed with regard to their accommodation in detention centres.

Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights

The Committee is concerned about the high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and the lack of adolescent-friendly health services and menstrual hygiene management facilities and services. To improve the situation, the Committee recommends that Bangladesh adopt a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health policy for adolescents and ensure that sexual and reproductive health education is part of the mandatory school curriculum and targeted at adolescent girls and boys, with special attention paid to preventing early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Bangladesh should also improve access to adolescent-friendly health services and raise awareness in schools and communities about improving hygiene practices, while ensuring access to menstrual hygiene management facilities and services.

Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous childrenThe Committee is concerned that children from minority groups, in particular Dalit children and indigenous children, face discrimination and violence and lack access to quality education, in particular to education in their mother tongue. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of recognition by the State party of indigenous identity of the Adivasi indigenous peoples.
Situation of children with disabilities

The Committee urges the State party to adopt a human rights-based approach to disability, set up a comprehensive strategy for the inclusion of children with disabilities and develop an efficient system for diagnosing disability, which is necessary for putting in place appropriate policies and programmes for children with disabilities, including rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for children suffering from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination as well as undertake awareness-raising campaigns aimed at government officials, the public and families to combat the stigmatization of and prejudice against children with disabilities and promote a positive image of such children.
Bangladesh should also set up comprehensive measures to develop inclusive education and ensure that such education is given priority over the placement of children in specialized institutions and classes and train specialized teachers and professionals in inclusive education and assign them to integrated classes providing individual support and all due attention to children with learning difficulties. The Committee further urges Bangladesh to immediately take measures to ensure that schools and health care facilities are accessible and that educational services are tailored to children’s needs.

Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant childrenThe Committee welcomes the adoption of a national strategy on Myanmar refugees and undocumented Myanmar nationals, which acknowledges for the first time that undocumented Rohingya from northern Rakhine State in Myanmar who are currently in Bangladesh, many of whom are children, have fled persecution and need humanitarian assistance. Meanwhile, the Committee is concerned at reports that Rohingya asylum-seeking children from Myanmar and their families are routinely detained because of illegal entry into the State party.To improve the situation, the Committee recommends that the State party release asylum-seeking and refugee children held in detention centres and enable them to access the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and ensure that unaccompanied, separated, refugee and asylum-seeking children are not detained because of illegal entry or stay in the State party.
Free kindergartenNo
Free primary and secondary schoolYes
Digital possibilitiesThe State Party endeavours to establish an online database to store data and information on people and children with disabilities and to provide reports for planning and programming.
physical health

The Committee notes with appreciation the initiatives undertaken by the State party. It remains, however, concerned that only one third of women deliver with the support of a skilled attendant, and about regional disparities in the provision of health services. The Committee is also concerned about the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition among children, in particular in slums and rural areas.
To guarantee every child the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate sufficient financial and human resources to health to eliminate regional disparities in the provision of health services. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party implement and apply the technical guidance on the application of a human rights-based approach to the implementation of policies and programmes to reduce and eliminate preventable mortality and morbidity of children under 5 years of age and pay specific attention to anaemia and malnutrition, in particular in rural and remote areas and in slums. Bangladesh should further develop and implement policies to improve health infrastructures, and intensify training programmes for all health professionals.

Relation to other countries
mental health

The Committee reiterates its previous concern about the lack of adequate facilities and counselling services for mental health for adolescents and expresses concern at the reported increased number of suicides among adolescents.
The Committee recommends that the State party take urgent action to strengthen its efforts to prevent suicide among children and youth, including by increasing psychological counselling services and social workers in schools and communities, and ensure that all professionals working with children are adequately trained to identify and address early suicidal tendencies and mental health problems.

Business sector

The Committee is concerned about the significant number of children being engaged in labour, many of them in hazardous conditions, and in domestic work where they are vulnerable to violence and sexual abuse. It therefore urges the State party to enforce its national legislation to ensure that child labour, including in the informal sector and family businesses, is in full compliance with international standards and to ensure the full protection of children against all forms of sexual, physical and psychological harassment. The Committee also recommends that the State party establish programmes to reintegrate into mainstream education children who have been involved in labour and strengthen the implementation of labour laws by establishing labour inspections, including in the informal sector, and ensuring that anyone violating legislation on child labour be held accountable.

Situation of juvenile justice

The Committee welcomes the reform of the administration of juvenile justice, which provides for the appointment of a child affairs police officer in each police station and the establishment of one Children Court in every district. However, the Committee is concerned that owing to the large difference in population numbers among various districts, the number of juvenile courts on a per capita basis is limited. Therefore, the Committee urges the State party to bring its juvenile justice system fully into line with the Convention and other relevant standards. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to increase the number of juvenile courts in the State party on a per capita basis and ensure that such new courts are adequately staffed by trained judges and the relevant support staff, especially probation and social welfare officers, as well as to provide accurate and updated disaggregated data on children serving prison terms and those on remand awaiting trial, as well as on the reasons for their detention.

Specific observations

To improve birth registration, the Committee urges Bangladesh to take all measures necessary to increase the birth registration rate, including by establishing mobile registration offices, in particular in rural areas, and undertaking a campaign aimed at registering all children who have not yet been registered and who do not have birth certificates. Bangladesh should also promote awareness of the importance of birth registration among parents and relevant authorities through regular mass campaigns and provide information on the procedures for birth registration and the rights and entitlements deriving from such registration.
Also, despite the decision to provide birth certificates to children born inside two refugee camps in the State party, the Committee is concerned that refugee children born outside the camps do not have birth certificates and have limited access to basic services, education and recreation. The Committee recommends to provide birth registration and access to basic rights, such as to health and education, for all undocumented Rohingya children and their families on the State party’s territory, irrespective of their legal status.

The Committee is deeply concerned about the increase in prostitution in general, and that the prohibition of involvement in prostitution applies only to children under the age of 10.
The Committee recommends that the State party prohibit and criminalize the involvement of children in prostitution and all forms of exploitation and take measures to prevent such exploitation, monitor the implementation of such measures and provide victims with rehabilitation and care.

Additional background

Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report released on 30 October 2015. The Committee recommends to the State party to accelerate the review process with a view to withdrawing the reservations to articles 14 (1) and 21 of the Convention in accordance with the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. More information about education in Bangladesh: and

Last Updated (date)2nd of March, 2022