|Optional protocol||on the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography|
|Corporal punishment||Corporal Punishment is legal in the home, alternative care settings and day care.|
|Overview of the child rights situation|
The report from Cameroon shows that much remains to be done to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. For example, the low budget allocations to the health sector and the structural discrimination and displacement of indigenous people need to be improved. School attendance should not suffer due to excessive costs or the oppression of girls. Violence also plays a major role, on the one hand due to the wars and conflicts in neighbouring countries, and on the other hand due to violent acts emanating from terrorist organizations such as Boko Haram and from the state police itself.
|Situation of intersexual and transsexual children||The Committee is deeply concerned about the State party’s rejection during the dialogue of the identity of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex children and the stigmatization and discrimination experienced by such children. It urges the State Party to recognize the identity of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex children and protect them against discrimination in law and in practice.|
|Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights|
The Committee expresses grave concern that sexual violence is prevalent, including against very young children, that over 22 per cent of girls aged 15-19 have experienced sexual violence, notably within the context of child marriage, and that consequently the high rate of HIV/AIDS of this group persists. In addition to that, state legislation does not provide full protection for all victims of violence, including sexual violence, or guarantee their compensation or rehabilitation.
|Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous children||In view of the discrimination experienced by the Pygmies and the Mbororo peoples in the State party and the absence of any law protecting their rights, the Committee urges the State party to allocate adequate resources for the implementation of the national action plan for indigenous peoples, ensuring its objective is to respect, protect and promote the rights of indigenous children and to eliminate their food insecurity, poverty and vulnerability to violence and exploitation, with their full and effective participation. It also urges Cameroon to accelerate efforts to promote the education of indigenous children and counteract the extremely high illiteracy rate of the indigenous peoples through the construction of adequately resourced schools in their communities and the delivery of culturally appropriate curricula.|
|Situation of children with disabilities|
The Committee urges the State party to adopt a human rights-based approach to disability and specifically recommends that it take immediate measures to ensure that children with disabilities have access to health care, including early detection and intervention programmes.
|Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant children||Conflicts and instability in neighbouring countries have resulted in, collectively, over a half million refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons arriving in Cameroon. Therefore, the Committee recommends, among other things, to ensure that the best interests of the child are a primary consideration in all decisions and agreements in relation to the transfer of any asylum-seeking or refugee children, that all returns are voluntary and that the principle of non-refoulement is upheld. Further, Cameroon should develop comprehensive referral and case management frameworks for services to refugee and asylum-seeking children, particularly in the fields of physical and mental health services, education and the police and justice sectors, including the provision of free legal aid, particularly for unaccompanied and separated children.|
|Free primary and secondary school||No|
Low budget allocations to the health sector result in poor infrastructure, equipment, quality of services, and lack of qualified personnel, and contribute to high maternal and neonatal mortality rates and child malnutrition. To guarantee the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that Cameroon ensure a sufficient number of accessible health centres and hospitals equipped with adequate human, technical and financial resources throughout the country and increase investment in seasonal malaria prevention including by delivering awareness-raising programmes on the utilization of mosquito nets and ensure sanctions against health workers who demand payment of informal fees for the disbursement of free malaria treatment.
Concerning adolescent health, the Committee recommends to address the incidence of drug abuse by children and adolescents, in particular Tramadol, by, inter alia, providing children and adolescents with accurate and objective information and education on life skills for the prevention of substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependency treatment and harm reduction services.
|Relation to other countries|
|Impacts of climate change|
The Committee is deeply concerned that the activities of companies, particularly transnational corporations in the extractive and agribusiness sectors, in the State party may lead to forced displacement and resettlement of indigenous communities and other minority groups, pollution of water resources and food, and environmental degradation to the detriment of children. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the lack of a regulatory framework in this regard.
|Situation of juvenile justice|
The Committee is concerned about arbitrary detention of children by police and the informal fees demanded for their release, including informal fees for legal aid lawyers and insufficiency and inadequacy of hygienic and serviced detention facilities for children and the lack of any systematic separation from adults of children in detention.
The Committee is concerned that children born out of wedlock must fulfil additional conditions to acquire Cameroonian nationality and that the acquisition of nationality may be denied to children with disabilities.
|Additional Background||Concluding observations on the third to fifth periodic reports released on 6 July 2017.|
|Last Updated (date)||2nd of March, 2022|