|Optional protocol||on the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography|
|Corporal punishment||Corporal Punishment is legal in in the home, some alternative care settings and some day care.|
|Overview of the child rights situation|
The Ethiopian report makes clear that the diversity of ethnic, social and cultural expressions is not guaranteed. In addition, tensions exist between religious communities, which have led to the death and injury of many children. Ethiopia is also a fairly poor country, which is reflected in inadequate data collection and provision of public goods such as education and health services.
|Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights|
The Committee recommends to eliminate gender discrimination in all sectors, particularly in terms of access to education and health, address significant regional disparities in the promotion and protection of the rights of girls and adolescents, and pay particular attention to girls with disabilities, as well as girls suffering physical and sexual abuse. Also, Ethiopia should guarantee the respect and protection of the rights of children belonging to ethnic minorities and indigenous populations, investigate cases of violence and intimidation, particularly in conflict-affected regions, as well as cases of forceful relocation of children and their families from their traditional lands, and ensure that perpetrators are held accountable and provide effective remedies to victims.
The Committee is concerned at the large proportion of girls who experience forced sexual initiation, particularly within the context of early marriage and sexual harassment, and it regrets the significantly low reporting rates of child abuse, including sexual abuse, the absence of mechanisms to assess and monitor the extent of such violations, the lack of prosecution and conviction and the lack of adequate rehabilitation and reintegration services for victims.
|Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous children||The Committee recommends that Ethiopia guarantee the respect and protection of the rights of children belonging to ethnic minorities and indigenous populations, investigate cases of violence and intimidation, particularly in conflict-affected regions, as well as cases of forceful relocation of children and their families from their traditional lands, ensure that perpetrators are held accountable and provide effective remedies to victims.|
|Situation of children with disabilities|
The Committee remains deeply concerned at the persistence of negative attitudes and discrimination against children with disabilities, and at the fact that the vast majority of children with disabilities are deprived of education and face obstacles in accessing appropriate social and healthcare services. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of reliable disaggregated data, and the absence of specific information on initiatives and programmes for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children with disabilities, particularly for those children suffering from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination.
|Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant children||The Committee is concerned about the lack of security and protection of refugee, asylum seeking and internally displaced children from violence, exploitation and abuse within and outside the refugee camps. In this context, the Committee is seriously concerned about the reports of disappearances of refugee and asylum-seeking children from the refugee camps, and about the living conditions in those camps.<br /> <br /> To improve the situation for these children, the Committee urges Ethiopia to collect disaggregated data on refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, including unaccompanied and separated children, and urgently investigate reports of disappearances of children from the refugee camps, establish their whereabouts and prosecute those responsible for such crimes. Also, Ethiopia should adopt targeted policies to promote the integration of refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons, through the development of out-of-camp policies, and to elaborate and implement a comprehensive strategy for the protection of internally displaced persons.|
|Free kindergarten||Not clear|
|Free primary and secondary school||Not clear|
The Committee is concerned that the per capita spending on basic health is well below the internationally accepted levels. The Committee deeply regrets the persistence of regional disparities in the provision of health services, and that malnutrition, infant, under-five, prevalence of noma and maternal mortality rates remain high.
Concerning adolescent health, the Committee regrets the absence of information on specific programmes targeting vulnerable adolescents and teenagers, particularly those in street situations, orphans, pregnant teenagers, and those living in poverty and in single-parent households. The Committee also regrets the insufficient available information on reproductive and mental health services for adolescents as well as institutional coordination in implementing and evaluating adolescent health programmes and policies. Therefore, the Committee recommends to strengthen the capacity of health services at all levels to deliver quality adolescent-sensitive services, including developmental, mental, and reproductive health counselling services, and make them known and accessible to all adolescents.
|Relation to other countries|
The Committee recommends to eliminate the barriers in terms of access to adequate mental and reproductive health services, by paying particular attention to vulnerable teenagers and adolescents. Also, Ethiopia should eliminate the de facto discrimination of all children with disabilities, including children with mental disabilities, as well as children living with noma, and children living with HIV/AIDS, and ensure their full inclusion in all spheres of life, and particularly in education and health care.
|Impacts of climate change|
The Committee recommends to develop and implement a comprehensive framework on business conduct in order to ensure that business activities do not have adverse impact on human rights or endanger environmental and other standards, in particular those relating to children and women, and impose sanctions and provide remedies when violations occur.
The Committee is concerned about the adverse impact of large-scale investments and development projects on children’s rights. In particular, the Committee is concerned about the forced relocation of indigenous families, including Anuak and Nuer, taking place in mid-2010, particularly in the regions of Gambella, Benishangul-Gumuz, Somali and Afar, due to agricultural planning strategies and investments.
|Situation of juvenile justice|
The Committee urges the State party to fully investigate all violations committed against children during the events of April 2014 (Oroma protests) and publicly report on its findings. It further recommends that the State party ensure that perpetrators of such violations are brought to justice, and that victims are provided with adequate redress and reparations.
The Committee further urges Ethiopia to take urgent measures to develop and implement a comprehensive strategy for the administration of juvenile justice and collect systematic disaggregated data on the number of children who are in conflict with the law and the number of children in detention centres.
While the Committee notes that the State party is making efforts to tackle poverty, it is seriously concerned about the high rates of poverty affecting children especially in rural areas, resulting in deprivation of children’s right to survival and development.
|Additional Background||Concluding observations on the fourth and fifth periodic reports released on 3 June 2015.|
|Last Updated (date)||27th of February, 2022|