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Optional protocolon the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, on a Communication Procedure
Corporal punishmentCorporal Punishment is prohibited.
Overview of the child rights situation

The report from Mongolia shows a high burden for children by environmental conditions, especially pollution. Due to many people moving to the urban centres, the rural regions are often left behind. Positive aspects are the free education and the ratification of all optional protocols by Mongolia.

Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights

The Committee recommends that the State party reintroduce sexual and reproductive health as a separate class in schools, involving adolescents in the development of its content, and that the State party strengthen its efforts to provide adolescents with appropriate reproductive health.

Situation of children with disabilities

The Committee is concerned at the social exclusion of children with disabilities and the discrimination they face in all areas of life. The Committee urges the State Party to, among other things, adopt a human rights-based approach to disability, set up a comprehensive strategy for the inclusion of children with disabilities and ensure the allocation of sufficient human, technical and financial resources to effectively implement the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Committee further urges Mongolia to organize the collection of data on children with disabilities and develop an efficient system for diagnosing disability, which is necessary for putting in place appropriate policies and programmes for children with disabilities. In addition to that, Mongolia should set up comprehensive measures to develop inclusive education that caters to the individual needs of each student and ensure that inclusive education is given priority over the placement of children in specialized institutions and classes as well as take immediate measures to ensure that children with disabilities have access to health care, including early detection and intervention programmes.

Free kindergartenYes
Free primary and secondary schoolYes
Digital possibilitiesNoting the prevalence of Internet use among children in the State party, the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to ensure that children are adequately protected from information and material harmful to their well-being, particularly on the Internet and social media. It also recommends that the State party take concrete measures to improve children’s access to appropriate information from a diversity of sources, including television programmes for children as well as books, especially those aimed at the promotion of the child’s social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health, while paying particular attention to the content disseminated through the mass media, the needs of children from ethnic and linguistic minority groups and children with disabilities.
physical health

While welcoming the measures taken by the State party to improve the quality of and access to health services, including efforts to provide free health insurance coverage to all children, the Committee remains concerned at the persistent inequality in children’s health across regions and socioeconomic status, as well as the lack of access to quality health care. The Committee therefore recommends that the State party promptly take the necessary measures to ensure adequate access to health services to all children, with particular attention to children in rural areas and from low-income families. It further recommends to take concrete measures to combat corruption in the health-care sector.

Concerning environmental health, the Committee notes the measures taken by the State party to respond to severe air pollution, and expresses its serious concern about the impact of increasing levels of air pollution on children, particularly in Ulaanbaatar and the Ger areas, including reduced foetal growth, preterm birth, reduced lung function leading to acute respiratory disease and chronic respiratory disease later in life, and pneumonia, which is already one of the leading causes of under-5 child mortality in Mongolia. It also expresses concern that mining activities and rapid urbanization have led to increased water and soil contamination, thus further undermining children’s access to safe drinking water.

Relation to other countries
mental health

The Committee is concerned about indications of a further increase in mental health issues among children, including children contemplating or attempting suicide, and reiterates its recommendation that the State party develop a comprehensive national child mental health policy, which should be based on an analysis of the situation and its root causes. The Committee further recommends that the State party take measures to increase the number of specialized child psychologists and consider introducing low-threshold services, such as specialized nurses in the school health service.

Impacts of climate change

Noting the impact of climate change on the fragile ecosystem of the State party and the direct impact on children as a result of extreme winters that lead to significant losses in livestock, particularly among herding families, the Committee urges the State party to adopt a child-focused approach to coping and adapting to climate change and include children in the development of its policies and plans.

Business sector

While noting the measures taken by the State party to minimize the negative impact of business activities, the Committee remains concerned at the lack of regulation of business enterprises that negatively affect the rights of children, including the extractive industry. It also expresses serious concern about the prevalence of conflicts of interest between official duties and the private interests of those in public service roles, including members of parliament and government officials having personal investments in horse racing and training, pharmaceutical industries and tobacco and alcohol industries, which curtails the rights of children.
The Committee recommends that the State party establish and implement regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and national human rights, labour, environmental and other standards, particularly with regard to children’s rights. In particular, it recommends that the State party adopt appropriate legislation to regulate the extractive industry and ensure its effective implementation so that the industry’s activities do not negatively affect the rights of children. The State party should also take all measures necessary, including effective enforcement of legislation, to eliminate conflicts of interest between official duties and the private interests of those in public service roles.

Situation of juvenile justice

Noting the commitment made by the State party in the context of the universal periodic review to establish a comprehensive framework on juvenile justice in conformity with international standards, the Committee urges the State party to do so without further delay and to implement its previous recommendations. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to designate specialized judges for children and ensure that such specialized judges receive appropriate education and training on the principles and provisions of the Convention. Furthermore, the Committee urges the State party to ensure the provision of qualified and independent legal aid to children in conflict with the law and throughout the legal proceedings, including free legal aid for those unable to afford it. Mongolia should also ensure, in cases where detention is unavoidable, that the children are not detained together with adults and that detention conditions are compliant with international standards, including with regard to access to education and health services.

Specific observations

While noting the measures adopted by the State party, the Committee remains seriously concerned about risks to the life, survival and development of children caused by injuries and accidents, in particular burns among children below 5 years of age, car accidents due to increasing traffic in rural areas and horse racing. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen efforts to prevent injuries and accidents, including by educating parents and the public at large on accident prevention and ensuring the accountability of those responsible.

Additional background

Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report released on 12 July 2017. More Information about education in Mongolia:
(page 20) and Preschool in Mongolia and Secondary education regional information base

Last Updated (date)2nd of March, 2022