Back to the map with all countries
Optional protocolon the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, on a Communication Procedure
Corporal punishmentCorporal Punishment is legal at home, in alternative care settings and day care.
Overview of the child rights situation

Since the Committee's reporting, Russia has used its influence in the Donbass region, an annexed part of Ukraine, to militarize children and education for its own purposes. Reports from December 2018 indicate that more than 5,000 children have passed through militarized patriotic camps and are being used as soldiers. The big refugee wave currently waiting to enter the EU between Belarus and Poland is also co-initiated by Russia.

Situation of intersexual and transsexual childrenThe Committee is also concerned about the recent legislation of the State party prohibiting “propaganda of unconventional sexual relationships” which is allegedly intended to protect children but in fact encourages the stigmatization of and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons, including children, and children from LGBTI families. The Committee is particularly concerned that the vague definitions of propaganda used lead to the targeting and ongoing persecution of the country’s LGBTI community, including through abuse and violence, in particular against underage LGBTI-rights activists. The Committee recommends that the State party repeal its laws prohibiting propaganda of homosexuality and ensure that children who belong to LGBTI groups or children from LGBTI families are not subjected to any forms of discrimination by raising the public’s awareness of equality and non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights

The Committee remains concerned about the large number of cases of sexual exploitation and abuse of children in the State party and the lack of cooperation between law enforcement agencies and the social system to prevent such offences or to rehabilitate victims of sexual violence and sexual abuse.
The Committee recommends that the State party establish interdepartmental cooperation, in particular between law enforcement agencies and social services structures, in order to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse of children and to provide timely and effective rehabilitation to victims of such crimes. The Committee also recommends that the State party take urgent measures to investigate all information relating to sexual abuse of children, including LGBTI children, and prosecute and punish the perpetrators of such crimes.

Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous childrenThe Committee notes that the State party’s legislation allows for compensation to be provided to indigenous persons for damage to the environment by businesses, although no information has been provided about whether claims of indigenous persons for compensation have been met. But the Committee is concerned that oil- and gas- extracting businesses continue to have a negative impact on the traditional lifestyle of persons belonging to small-numbered indigenous groups, including children, through deforestation and pollution and by endangering the species that are crucial to their livelihoods.
Situation of children with disabilities

The Committee urges the State party to ensure the conformity of its legislation, policies and practices with the aim of effectively addressing the needs of children with disabilities in a non-discriminatory manner. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party take all the necessary measures to prevent mass institutionalization of children with disabilities and ensure sufficient alternative family- and community-based care options for children with disabilities deprived of a family environment, by educating the public and providing all the necessary support to families with children with disabilities. Russia should employ independent medical experts to monitor and review the diagnosis of children with mental disabilities, especially children without family care, and their placement in special care institutions by boards of psychological, medical and educational specialists. Additionally, Russia should provide education and developmental activities to children with mental disabilities on a regular basis and stop the practice of categorizing children as “unteachable”.

Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant childrenThe Committee urges the State party to establish safeguards against the refoulement of children where there are substantial grounds for believing that their life or freedoms would be in danger and establish child- and gender-sensitive procedures for unaccompanied and separated children.
Free kindergartenNo
Free primary and secondary schoolNo
physical health

The Committee is concerned about the increasing number of children with chronic pathologies and disabilities, especially among children without parental care and children in difficult situations. It is also concerned about the frequent occurrence of malnourishment, especially among children of migrant workers, and the significant obstacles faced by such children and asylum-seeking children in obtaining medical assistance, including preventive health care and emergency assistance.
To improve the situation, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to regularly assess the health conditions of children deprived of parental care and children in difficult situations in order to prevent irreparable damage to their health. The Committee also recommends that the State party take measures to provide all children, irrespective of their legal status in the country, with access to medical assistance, in particular preventive health care and emergency assistance, without any discrimination.

Relation to other countries
Business sector

The Committee is concerned about the negative impact of coal extraction and the production of asbestos on children’s health, especially those living in the Kemerovo and Ural regions.
The Committee recommends that Russia establishes and implements regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and national human rights as well as labour, environmental and other standards. In particular, it urges the State party to establish a clear regulatory framework for the oil and gas industries and coal-extraction businesses operating in the State party to ensure that their activities do not negatively affect human rights or endanger environmental and other standards, especially those relating to indigenous children’s rights. Also, Russia should curtail the production of asbestos and raise the public’s awareness of the toxicity of asbestos and its effect on health and provide timely reparation to limit ongoing and future damage to the health and development of children affected and compensate for any damage that has occurred.

Situation of juvenile justice

The Committee urges the State party to establish a juvenile justice system in full compliance with the Convention. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party expedite the adoption of the laws establishing a juvenile justice system, including juvenile courts with specialized staff and a restorative justice approach, to follow up on the positive decrease in the number of children sentenced to deprivation of liberty and prevent the unlawful detention of children and ensure that legal safeguards are guaranteed for children detained. Russia should also ensure that children who reach the age of majority while in detention can stay in institutions for juvenile offenders until they reach their mid-twenties as a rule. Furthermore, Russia should develop comprehensive rehabilitation and reintegration measures for all children in conflict with the law.

Specific observations

The Committee is seriously concerned about reports that children born to Roma, refugee and asylum-seeking mothers with non-Russian passports or without identity documents are denied birth registration and are issued with only a hospital certificate indicating merely their sex, height and weight. The Committee is concerned that this practice gives rise to a new generation of undocumented persons, whose rights are limited in all areas of life.
Therefore, the Committee urges the State party to ensure that all children born in its territory, irrespective of the status of their parents, are registered on the same terms as children born to Russian citizens and are issued with a standard birth certificate.

Additional background

Concluding observations on the fourth and fifth periodic reports released on 25 February 2014. More information about education in Russia:

Last Updated (date)09th of March, 2022