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Optional protocolon the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
ViolenceThe Committee expresses serious concern regarding the physical and sexual violence against children in the State party, including in schools or on the way to and from school, as well as sexual exploitation, including the sexual exploitation of girls, particularly in mining areas. The Committee recommends that the State party take the necessary measures to ensure that all children vulnerable to and at risk of any form of sexual exploitation are provided with all the necessary assistance and protection. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party develop adequate systems of investigation of cases of sexual exploitation and promptly prosecute all cases of sexual violence and abuse of children.
Corporal punishmentCorporal Punishment is legal in the home, some alternative care settings, day care, schools, some penal institutions and as a sentence for crime.
Overview of the child rights situation

The report from Tanzania is very detailed. Weaknesses in the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are particularly evident in the area of violence. Forced marriage and sexual exploitation by teachers and confidants are commonplace, as is abuse in the form of burnings. Children with albinism are persecuted and the homes that are supposed to offer protection are completely overcrowded and have few sanitation facilities.

Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights

The Committee is deeply concerned about the persistence of forced and early marriages of girls, and to lesser extent of boys, in the State party, sometimes even before they reach puberty. Such early marriages tend to occur particularly in poor areas and are reportedly due to religious and customary laws.

The Committee is further concerned that female Genital Mutilation remains prevalent, especially in rural and traditional communities, and that women and girls have little understanding of the related risks. The Committee is particularly concerned about reports that female Genital Mutilation is increasingly performed at a very young age, including on babies.

Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous childrenWhile noting the “campaign on violence against women, children and people with albinism conducted throughout the country”, the Committee is nevertheless extremely alarmed about the killings of children with albinism, including for ritual purposes, and their social exclusion in the State party. It is seriously concerned that the root causes of the violence, including murder, mutilations and trafficking of body parts, are insufficiently addressed, that prosecution of offenders is hampered by fear and the reported complicity of some State authorities, and that children with albinism have been placed in boarding schools/shelters for children with special needs.<br /> <br /> The Committee urges the State party to adopt without delay a comprehensive strategy, including awareness-raising, especially in the most affected areas, targeting “witch doctors”, to fully ensure the immediate and long-term protection of children with albinism and address the root causes of the violence they suffer. It also urges the State party to expedite the investigation and prosecution of all cases involving children with albinism so that no perpetrator can escape with impunity, and provide the victims with rehabilitation and redress. The Committee encourages the State party to review its policy of placing children with albinism in boarding schools. It also recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to find the families of those children who have been placed in such shelters and reunite the children with their families, when this is in the best interests of the child.
Situation of children with disabilities

The Committee notes with appreciation the laws and policies to protect the rights of children with disabilities, including efforts to promote the enrolment of children with disabilities into mainstream education. However, the Committee notes with concern that throughout the country, children with disabilities are subjected to greater abuse, violence, stigma and exclusion, particularly in rural areas, and especially those children with intellectual and psychosocial impairments. Also, infrastructure in public places is not suitable for children with disabilities and access to inclusive education and well-trained teachers is limited.
To improve the situation for children with disabilities, the Committee recommends to expedite the establishment of the necessary infrastructure in public places to accommodate children with different disabilities and strengthen the implementation of laws and policies relating to children with disabilities.

Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant childrenWhile noting the efforts undertaken by the State party to operate programmes to combat sexual and gender-based violence in all refugee camps, the Committee is concerned about reports of frequent sexual and gender-based violence in Nyarugusu refugee camp, including giving away a child, mainly a daughter, to pay a debt. The Committee is also concerned about the scarce opportunities for children, in particular long-term refugee children, to access education and develop life skills, and the insufficient assistance for unaccompanied children in the camps.<br /> The State party needs to improve the protection response and follow-up for cases of sexual violence concerning children. The Committee also urges the State party to ensure the right of all children to education and to provide basic assistance for children without family in the camps.
Free kindergartenYes
Free primary and secondary schoolYes
physical health

To guarantee every child the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends Tanzania to improve access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities as well as establish more child and maternal health clinics and safe delivery services in order to reduce the distances mothers and pregnant women have to travel, and ensure their availability.

Concerning adolescent health, the Committee is concerned that adolescents who become pregnant as a result of sexual violence have limited options and often resort to unsafe abortions, resulting in their death. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of information about modern contraceptives and adolescent-friendly health services, particularly in rural areas. To improve the situation for adolescents, the Committee urges the State party to adopt a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education policy for adolescents, including sex education, inter alia making health education part of the school curriculum, and improve knowledge of and the availability of reproductive health-care services with a view to reducing teenage pregnancies and preventing HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. Furthermore, Tanzania should take urgent measures to reduce maternal deaths relating to teenage abortions and ensure by law and in practice that the views of the child are always listened to and respected in abortion decisions.

Relation to other countries
Business sector

The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts undertaken by the State party to combat child labour. However, the Committee notes with concern that enforcement of the existing legal framework and policies is weak and that children remain exposed to hazardous labour, especially in agriculture, artisanal mines and stone quarries, and to exploitation in domestic work. The Committee is also concerned about the limited availability of data on child labour, including in the informal sector.
Therefore, the Committee urges the State party to take measures to address the socioeconomic factors contributing to child labour and work together with international organisations on the implementation of the National Action Plan.

Situation of juvenile justice

The Committee remains concerned that children and their parents/guardians are often unaware of their rights and how to engage in court proceedings. In particular, the Committee is concerned about the lack of adequate legal-aid services for children in conflict with the law and the insufficient number of professionals with specialized training on juvenile Justice. The Committee encourages the State party to immediately remove children from adult detention facilities and ensure that their detention conditions are compliant with international standards, including with regard to access to education and health services. Also, Tanzania should abolish corporal punishment as a judicial sanction.

Specific observations

The Committee is concerned at the low number of births registered, especially in rural areas. To improve the situation, the Committee recommends to provide birth registration and issue birth certificates free of charge for children under 5 years of age.

The Committee is also concerned over the high prevalence of child abuse and neglect, including severe forms of abuse, such as burning with fire. The Committee also expresses its concern over the reduced allocation of resources to protection against abuse and neglect, the limited numbers of social welfare officers, and the low levels of reporting of abuse, in particular in rural and remote areas.

Additional BackgroundConcluding observations on the third to fifth periodic reports released on 3 March 2015.
Last Updated (date)28th of February, 2022