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Optional protocolon the involvement of children in armed conflict, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, on a Communication Procedure
ViolenceThe Committee is concerned about the accidents and injuries, including drowning and road accidents, which are reported as leading causes of death among children.
Corporal punishmentCorporal Punishment is legal in the home, alternative care settings and day care.
Overview of the child rights situation

In Thailand, there are strong regional disparities, especially in the North-East and South, regarding access to social, health and educational services for children. There is also a need to fight corruption and end discrimination against children from minority groups.

Female genital mutilation and reproductive rights

The Committee is seriously concerned that teenage pregnancy is a growing problem which also leads to increasing numbers of illegal abortions. To improve the situation, the Committee recommends that Thailand intensify its efforts to raise awareness of the negative consequences of early pregnancy and abortions and strengthen its adolescent reproductive health programmes, including life skills education.

Racism, children belonging to a minority and indigenous childrenThe Committee is concerned that children belonging to indigenous, tribal and minority communities are often subjected to both stigmatization and discrimination due to their distinct living habits and language. The Committee is further concerned about widespread poverty among indigenous peoples and minorities and lack of demographic data on the hill-tribe population in the country.
Situation of children with disabilities

The Committee welcomes the growing number of schools with inclusive education for children with disabilities. Notwithstanding, the Committee is seriously concerned about the large number of children with disabilities who are not in school and that youth policies do not identify them as special target groups. The Committee is also concerned at the limited proportion of children with disabilities who receive education beyond the pre-primary level.
The Committee recommends that the State party review the situation of children with disabilities in terms of their access to education services and give effective priority to the development of inclusive education over the placement of children in specialized institutions. It also recommends that the State party properly target children with disabilities in youth policies.

Situation of asylum-seeking, refugee and migrant childrenThe Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to improve the conditions in camps for temporary refugees by providing them with adequate basic needs. The Committee also recommends that the State party renew its registration of newly arrived asylum-seekers in order to keep account of their possible needs. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party treat the asylum-seekers and refugees according to their status and do not subject them to detention or deportations to a country where their lives might be in danger.
Free kindergartenYes
Free primary and secondary schoolYes
physical health

The Committee welcomes the achievements of the State party in implementing the Universal Healthcare Coverage Scheme, which ensures free medical treatment for most diseases for all Thai nationals, including children, and in improving overall child nutrition. However, it remains seriously concerned about severe disparities in nutritional status among children depending on their families’ economic status, mothers’ education, linguistic background and geographic location. The Committee is also concerned that despite some improvements, iodine deficiency remains widespread.
The Committee urges the State party to accelerate measures to improve the nutrition of all children irrespective of their families’ economic status, mothers’ education, Thai or non-Thai linguistic background and geographic location in urban, rural or remote areas. In this regard, it encourages the State party to conduct an analysis of the causes and extent of under-nutrition of children in disadvantaged social groups. In addition, it recommends that the State party improve the nutritional status of children and ensure compliance and universal consumption of iodized salt.

Relation to other countries
mental health

The Committee welcomes the State party’s information that business and industry contribute resources and facilities to social welfare, including health care and education of children. The Committee is however concerned that the impact on children of business and fast-growing heavy industries, manufacturing, textiles and export agriculture has not been fully assessed. The Committee is particularly concerned that, while tourism constitutes a large part of the country’s economy, the State party has not yet adopted comprehensive measures to protect children from violations of their rights, such as in child sex tourism, child prostitution, child pornography and child labour, arising from tourist activities and facilities. The Committee also regrets the lack of legal institutional framework to regulate the activities of companies doing business in Thailand and of Thai companies operating abroad to ensure effective responses to issues of health and nutrition, economic and sexual exploitation, pollution and environmental degradation that can undermine the well-being of children.

Situation of juvenile justice

The Committee recommends that that the State party ensure that children are detained separately from adults, that they have a safe, child sensitive environment and that they maintain regular contact with their families. Thailand should also strengthen the training of judges and judicial personnel on the principles and provisions of the Convention and the Optional Protocols and develop social reintegration programmes for children in conflict with the law.

Specific observations

While noting as positive the efforts made by the State party to combat corruption, the Committee is concerned about the reports indicating that corruption remains pervasive among, inter alia, municipal and local government officials and law enforcement personnel, and thus diverts resources that could enhance the efficacy of government policies and programmes to implement the rights of the child.
The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its efforts to combat corruption at all levels and sectors, including by developing and implementing a vigorous anti-corruption policy, carrying out anti-corruption campaigns and strengthening institutional capacities to effectively detect, investigate and prosecute cases of corruption.

Additional background

The Committee welcomes the withdrawal by the State party of its reservation concerning article 7 of the Convention in December 2010. The Committee regrets, however, that the State party has not withdrawn its reservation concerning article 22. Concluding observations on the third and fourth periodic reports released on 17 February 2012. More information about education in Thailand:

Last Updated (date)22nd of February, 2022